The COVID 19 outbreak, caused by the novel coronavirus (CoV) called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected in late December 2019 in Wuhan city of China.
The first cases outside China were reported in January 2020 while the World Health Organization (WHO) in March had declared the outbreak as a pandemic. COVID 19 is a multisystem condition and hence understanding the recovery and rehabilitation process in infectious disease survivors is important while dealing with it. Metabolism will emerge as a critical regulator in terms of susceptibility, recovery from and survival after COVID 19. Infectious diseases and host metabolic processes are intimately connected and changes in host metabolism occur at all levels namely cellular, tissue, organ and the physiological (level) during infection.
For COVID 19, these changes are clearest at the cellular level, at which the virus hijacks the host cell machinery to support viral replication and promote pathogenesis. However, host metabolic responses at the tissue, organ and physiological levels also occur during viral infections and some of these responses are likely to reflect the adaptive mechanisms of the host to defend against the infection. Incidentally the efficacies of vaccines still on trial stage are not known. Haryana Health Minister Anil Vij, 67, who was administered a trial dose of a coronavirus vaccine recently, tested positive for COVID 19 and was admitted to a hospital on December 5 last. "I have tested Corona positive and I have been admitted to Civil Hospital Ambala Cantonment. All those who have come in close contact with me are advised to get themselves tested for corona," he had recently tweeted.
With in depth researches still continuing on this most infectious virus, giving conflicting statements by health bodies are naturalVij had in November tweeted that he will be the first volunteer in his state for the anti COVID vaccine, following which he was given Covaxin shots. The minister, however, had received only one shot of the vaccine, while Covaxin needs 'specific number of days to end after the second dose' for the anti bodies to build up. "The anti bodies against the infection build up in a human being only after a specific number of days pass after the second dose of the vaccine is taken. This is a two dose vaccine but the minister in question has taken only one dose of the vaccine," the health ministry informed.
"Covaxin has been designed to be efficacious when subjects receive both doses and post the 14 day period after the 2nd dose," Bharat Biotech had also stated in a statement. Bharat Biotech had announced the commencement of Phase III trials of Covaxin, involving 26,000 volunteers across India. The trials will be conducted in partnership with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and will be the largest clinical trial conducted for a COVID19 vaccine in India, according to news agency ANI.
The trial has been approved by the Drugs Controller General of India. Covaxin has been evaluated in about 1,000 subjects in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials, with promising safety and immunogenicity data. While WHO has advised against use of Remdesvir in COVID, ICMR and other premium healthcare bodies have been giving very conflicting opinions on COVID 19.
One wonders why is this? Clinical solutions typically focus on efficient pathogen destruction for infectious diseases. But, COVID19 pandemic is a reminder that infectious diseases are complex, multisystem conditions and a holistic understanding will be necessary to maximize survival. For COVID 19 and all other infectious diseases, metabolic processes are intimately connected to the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and the resulting pathology and pathophysiology as well as the host defence response to the infection.
With in-depth researches still continuing on this most infectious virus, giving conflicting statements by health bodies are natural. Instead of coming to a conclusion about the health bodies or the virus, it will be prudent to wait and watch for the universally acceptable truth to emerge.